\u00a0\n\nALL ABOUT PERSIAN MUS\u0130C\nIran has a very long national and political history. Persian was already a great empire, a meeting-place of diverse cultural elements. Still, it never lost its own individuality. In Islamic musical tradition mixture, the Persian element has been dominant\u00a0and this tradition was mostly based on pre-Islamic Persian musical practices.\u00a0Turkish or Arabic music terminology is largely Persian,\u00a0and musical instruments mostly used in these regions stem from Persian music instrument prototypes.\n\u00a0\n\n\u00a0\nPersian traditional music\u00a0is modal and improvisational.\u00a0Dastgahs, which find their roots in the modes described by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) provide the basic material for the music-making in Persian music.\u00a0Dastgah\u00a0is tended to be equated to\u00a0makam(or\u00a0maqam) in\u00a0all about\u00a0Turkish music.\u00a0However it is wider and it signifies a set of system composed of\u00a0makam\u00a0and melodic materials.\u00a0Makam\u00a0is the mode, the particular set of pitches from which the composers or improvisers make selections and each has a unique configuration of interval.\nThere are twelve\u00a0dastgahs\u00a0in\u00a0Persian music\u00a0each of which has a particular melodic contour (mayeh). A\u00a0dastgah\u00a0comprises\u00a0gushehs, which are anonymous melodies performed one after the other. Their length is different from each other and they are in conformity with the\u00a0dastgah\u2019s\u00a0tone. The twelve\u00a0dastgahs\u00a0in Persian music are:\u00a0shur, abu at\u00e3, dashti, bayat-e tork (or bayat-e zand), afshari, segah, chahargah, homayun, bayat-e esfahan, nava, mahur\u00a0and\u00a0rast\u00a0(or\u00a0rast-panjgah).\u00a0The performance of a\u00a0dastgah\u00a0usually begins with a section called\u00a0daramad\u00a0(introduction), where the mode (makam) and the\u00a0mayeh\u00a0of the\u00a0dastg\u00e2h\u00a0are signaled.\u00a0Daramad\u00a0is followed by the\u00a0gushehs, some of which are exclusive to a specific\u00a0dastgah.\n\u00a0\n\n\u00a0\nThe group of pieces forming each twelve\u00a0dastgah\u00a0is called\u00a0radif. On the other hand, this word is also used to indicate the pieces constituting Iran traditional music repertory.\nThe intervals between the pitches of\u00a0persian music is different than the Western music.\u00a0In addition to major and minor seconds in consecutive intervals, there are three-quarter notes, slightly larger than the western half-note and five-quarter tones, slightly larger than the western whole-tone.\nPersian musical instruments are designed so as to make possible that such intervals can be played. Each musical instrument in Iran generate beautiful tone colors reflecting the moods and emotions of those lands. Iran is also the source of several musical instruments found outside its lands. For instance,\u00a0persian santoor,\u00a0the Persian dulcimer is found in North India and Greece.\n\u00a0\n\n\u00a0\nIran has a wide range of string, bowed, percussion and woodwind instruments. Among those,\u00a0all about Persian setar\u00a0(a long-necked lute), tar (another long-necked lute), santoor (a hammer dulcimer), kamancheh (a spike fiddle), ney (a rim-blown flute)\u00a0and\u00a0tombak (or dombak which is a vase-shaped wooden drum)\u00a0are the most widely used instruments of Iran classical music.\nThe rhythmic structure of persian music is as sophisticated as its harmonic structure; it is somewhere between metric and non-metric. Some songs have metric structure whereas some other do not use any meter.\nPersian music is traditionally learned through private lessons from a master-musician. The pupil concentrates on mastering an instrument, even the singers study with an instrumentalist and learn to sing as the teacher plays on the instrument. The improvisation is inseparable from the process of learning.\nBesides Persian classical music, regional, rural or tribal music emerges in Iran benefiting from rich traditions. Both in classical and regional music, the use of voice is prominent besides the use of instruments.\u00a0Tahrir\u00a0is the unique vocal technique of the Persian classical music; it is a type of ornamentation with quasi-yodeling effect and high falsetto notes. Other vocal styles are used in traditional and spiritual ceremonies such as zekr (where poetry is sung and instruments are played by the members of Sofi orders). A type of responsorial singing called\u00a0Nowheh, in which the leader sings in variable meter against the group\u2019s short, more metrical response is used in villages.As you see, music is in the tradition, the culture, the daily life of Iran. The above explanations are just to provide you an overview of Persian music and to call you to explore the mystical and rich sounds of Iran in detail.